Spanish Miscegenation VS English Annihilation
Why are there more indigenous people in Hispanic America? The Spanish used the Laws of the Indies and the First Human Rights 400 years than the English. Spain opted for miscegenation, Hernán Cortés set an example. The Laws of the Indies were laws to protect them, despite the difficulty of their enforcement. Although there were forms of abuses, the indigenous could neither be enslaved nor transferred to other areas, when the laws could be applied, it was prevented.
+ Hispanic Footprints
Survivors: Why are there more natives in the US Hispanic territories?
The current number of indigenous people in the Hispanic countries of America reflects the superiority of Hispanic Human Rights, in the face of systematic English annihilation. England did not create a single law to defend the natives.
Many indigenous people died under European rule, also caused by Spanish. But the difference is that while the Hispanics chose the miscegenation and evangelization, the English forms of isolation and annihilatio.
Spain pioneer Human Rights
Europeans who traveled to the New World, risked to get wealth in any way. The dangerousness of the trip and hard life in America, was avoided by the Spanish nobles. Usually those who took the risk were civil servants and adventurers, many of them from low-income noble families, and they did it to make a fortune. Unfortunately few had scruples.
All countries committed abuses, but some carried out real genocides. Spain tried to avoid abuses in many cases. Christopher Columbus himself was returned to Spain loaded with chains.
After the first moment of the so-called Conquest, in which there were wars and all kinds of abuses. That is why it is called Conquest. The Spanish were the newcomers and they changed the laws as well as the customs of the pre-Hispanic peoples, whether they were good or bad. And they did it by force, since those who held power in those territories did not make it easy. And they managed to do it thanks to the support of thousands of natives who were fed up with the abuses of the Mexicas (Aztecs).
But after those few years, Spain opted to pacify those territories with evangelization. Hernán Cortés and his men gave examples and soon the crossbreeding began, something unthinkable for the English. Religious schools were created where indigenous people were educated who would later be wives of the Spaniards. As of the year 1536, religious schools began to be built and operated in Mexico.
Spain opted for Evangelization
America, occupied by an army of missionaries. From the first moment, Spain opted for miscegenation. The captains of Hernán Cortés married indigenous people.
In addition to forts, a multitude of churches and missions were built right away throughout America. The church protected and it is evident that there are many more survivors among the indigenous people of the Spanish Viceroyalties, than among those of the English colonies, who normally only remain 1%.
Evangelization and submission instead of total annihilation
Missionaries arrive. Instead of soldiers, multitudes of missionaries were sent, creating missions and schools in the new territories. Colonization through evangelism
The Kingdom of Spain was raised between the Gospel or annihilation
Evangelization was chosen from the first decisions of Isabel la Católica. Christopher Columbus himself was sent in chains to Spain for the abuses committed against him, during his tenure as Viceroy.
After the first years of the conquest, the consolidation of the New World territories was carried out by Spain with a great army but of religious and teachers
Spain, proclaims miscegenation
With the Laws of the Indies, Spain’s commitment to the evangelization of indigenous natives is produced
Mestizaje instead of Indigenous Reserves. In contrast to the Anglo-Saxon position of annihilation of the natives or the creation of reservations, Spain opted for miscegenation
Protective laws of Indians
Spain has been the European country that created the most laws to defend natives
He had to impose punishments on noncompliants for the difficulty of applying the laws behind an ocean and thousands of km away
The legislation that Spain created was pioneering in its time. Since its discovery in 1500, the testament of Queen Isabel la Católica mentions it and laws began to be created to prevent abuses.
These breaches occurred, but there were also exemplary punishments for the military and even governors who were deposed and even imprisoned.
There were few cases in which reservations were made for indigenous people and in these cases backed by the laws made by the owners.
Vasco de Quiroga rejects slavery in 1525
Defender of indigenous rights.
Bull Sublimis Deus (1537)
The Pope with the natives
The Indians were free like the others and able to dispose of goods. They could not be slaves. The proclamations of the church were clear. At that time he was betting on it.
Spain creates International Law
Through Father Francisco de Vitoria, the doctrine called Law of Peoples, currently called International Law, is created and disseminated. In front of the UN building in New York there is a statue of Francisco de Vitoria in memory of him for being the initiator of the movement. In the Geneva building, there is a pavilion named in honor of his work.
Father Francisco de Vitoria (1539)
“De Indias” and “Theological Relations” (1543)
It defends the freedom of man and his rights such as private property, dignity, the rejection of slavery. He gave lessons on his Theological Relations that were published in other countries.
Fray Bartolomé de las Casas (1566)
The books of him and the enemies of Spain
He wrote several books, seeking to curb abuses and improve laws for better treatment.
Fray Juan de Zumárraga
He creates schools for girls who could later marry Spaniards. He creates the first female convents in Mexico.
San Pedro Claver
A great missionary, protector and dfender of the colored slaves in the territories of America
Queen Elizabeth the Catholic (1500)
Faced with looming, Queen Elizabeth promulgates a Decree prohibiting slavery in the New World. With this norm, laws are created that will be the first declarations of human rights. They would be called Laws of the Indies.
Mission of Our Lady of Light in Talcojol in Sierra Gorda
Laws of Burgos
The natives are free men
They could be made to work as subjects who were with a fair wage and tolerable work.
Requirement: They had to obey as subjects and refused they could be imprisoned or enslaved.
The encomenderos could not directly punish the natives, this was done by the Visitors in charge of the task if they considered it. In the parcels, work, salary, living conditions, hygiene, housing, food, etc. were regulated. Pregnant women over 4 months were not supposed to work.
Testament of Elizabeth the Catholic (1504)
She ordered to treat them fairly
Queen Isabel la Catalina made it very clear in her will that the natives of the New World were not harmed, neither in their persons nor in her property.
Laws of Granada (1526)
Punishment of those who carry out excesses
In view of the abuses committed, complementary laws are drafted to force respect for the indigenous peoples.
At least two religious should go on expeditions. The enslaved Indian must be released for no reason. The parcels must be respectful with the Indians. Forcing Indians to work in the mines is prohibited.
New Laws (1542)
Vassals of the King of Spain, not slaves
The Indians are vassals and cannot be treated as slaves. They should be instructed and treated well. Teach them the Catholic Faith as free vassals that they are.
There will be no reason why he can be made slaves, neither by rebellion, nor by war, nor any other reason.
Other measures were: It cannot be Christianized by force. The day will not be longer than 8 hours. Sundays will be days of rest.
Indians may not be taken to regions far from their usual places for any reason.
Non-Indians will not be used as porters against their will.
The Indians who were distributed among the first conquerors will have to be released upon their death.
The officials of the King may not have commissions.
In short, protection and care of the Indians (vassals of the King, therefore not slaves) were requested.
Laws of Alfaro (1612)
Stop many of the abuses
They cannot be moved more than 5 km from their usual place. Neither was its sale allowed. They could choose pattern.
If an Indian had been transferred, they had to return to their place of origin. The survivors could create and organize indigenous peoples with their own mayors.
Compilation of the Laws of the Indies of the Crown of Spain, of Carlos II
Compilation of Laws of the Kingdoms of the Indies of King Carlos II
ENGLAND AND U.S, expulsion
England without laws in favor of the natives
While the Crown of Spain created a multitude of laws since the discovery of America in favor of the natives, England did not create a single law. For the Anglican Protestant mentality, the natives were only a hindrance, and they were only used for slavery.
The same happened with culture. Spain created 25 universities throughout America. There was a diffusion of knowledge among the Creole descendants of Spanish and even indigenous people. Girls’ schools were created. In Louisiana during the period of Spanish control (1763-1803), Governor Luis de Unzaga created the first bilingual school in the world.
English expulsion of natives
They opted for the Indian Reserves. The indigenous people were driven from their territories and many were exterminated
While the Spanish created a culture of miscegenation, where colonists married native women with the blessing of the church, the Anglo-Saxons created a world apart from that of the indigenous.
A true genocide with few survivors occurred in the territories of the United States. Initially, the indigenous people were expelled from their lands, later annihilated either by weapons or in Reserves by hunger and alcohol.
There are only large numbers of North American Indians, that is, the majority of the survivors, in the lands that were territories of New Spain. Places where the Laws of the Indies prevented them from being displaced from their territories and they were allowed to keep their lands and properties.
The Indian Transfer Law (1830) expelled the Indians from their territories to the West. But this never ended, they were increasingly being expelled further afield and onto land of lesser quality, where they could hardly subsist.
We have a good example with the Creek Indians that the English used so many times to attack the Spanish missions and forts until they drove them from Georgia. Later the English drove them to the West, where they suffered so many calamities. The survivors occupied the new hinterlands assigned to them
The Georgia process proclaimed that Indian nations are semi-sovereign and therefore will be protected by the Federal Government.
The policy of Indian Reservations of the United States is impressive, almost 40 states have some Reservation. In total, the territory occupied by the Reserves is only 4% of the United States.
The Indian Transfer Law (1830)
Forced to go to the West of the United States
Tribes in the eastern United States forced to abandon their lands and move more than 1,000 km
Under the Presidency of Andrew Jackson the story of him leading the militias, whose policy was to shoot any Indian, regardless of whether he was a man, a woman or a child. He always affirmed when he was appointed in 1803 Captain General of the Tennessee militias:
“that the best thing was to kill the Indian women so that they would not reproduce”
He never considered the natives as people, but as “wild dogs”. A racist and genocidal man, who gained followers among Anglo-American whites. Throughout his life he presumed that he still kept the scalping knife from those Indians whom he had killed.
The Indian peoples of the Atlantic Coast had to leave their territories. They were pressured to leave their lands and go west. Most of the indigenous people of the 13 colonies were expelled and if they wanted to survive, they had to move to territories not yet populated by settlers.
Expulsions: the Choctaw in 1830, Chickasaw in 1832, the Creek 1832, the Seminoles 1832-33, the Cherokees 1835-38, etc.
This was the beginning of the transfers throughout the West, until placing them in Indian Reserves, always in the poorest lands in the area. Therefore, the number of survivors was reduced.
General Distribution Act of 1887 (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act) divided the lands of the Indians into parcels. Some of these parcels were bought by the Government, which it later sold to settlers. Thus destroying the communal properties of the tribes.
The Ute Route that they undertook until they reached the new territories assigned to them by the
Trail of Tears (1831-1838)
The eastern tribes had to move, suffering great suffering, to the new territories assigned to the North American Indians.
The Cherokee and Choctaw traveled more than 1500 km
The Relocation Act compelled Indians throughout the eastern Mississippi River. The survivors had to move mainly to the Oklahoma area and neighboring territories. In North American history it would be known as the Trail of Tears, due to the enormous difficulties and the large number of deaths.
Choctaw and Cherokee Indians moved in 1831 and 1838 to their new territories, away from the Atlantic coasts.
Buffalo slaughter (1870)
Leaving them without food
Near Extermination: Mountain of Skulls (1870)
Simultaneously with the concentration of indigenous people in the plains, forcibly displaced from other areas of the country, another totally premeditated event took place. The massive hunting of buffalo, which reduced their numbers so much that they practically exterminated them. It is estimated that at the beginning of the 19th century, between 30 and 60 million bison lived in North America. They moved in herds sometimes of thousands of specimens. They produced a deafening noise as it almost shook the earth, it was like the noise of a storm. For this reason it was called “Thunder Storm”.
Mass killings ensued and railroad commuters were encouraged to shoot from windows and rooftops at the buffalo herds they sighted. For this, the train was accommodated at the speed of the herd, to be able to shoot better and for longer.
This caused that each year more than 200,000 buffalo were annihilated. It was becoming increasingly difficult for the Indians to get food. The policy of killing buffalo was promoted by some high command of the army, who encouraged their soldiers to kill them.
Led by General Philip Henry Sheridan, who participated in the so-called “Indian Wars”, destined for the Great Plains in the center of the country. Phrases are attributed to him as early as 1867, when he wrote General Ulysses S. Grant, such as:
“We are not going to let the robber and ragged Indians control and stop progress”
“We must act with vengeful seriousness against the Sioux, including to their extermination, men, women and children”
“The only good Indian is the dead Indian”
The latter never recognized him and assured that he said “The only good Indians that I saw were dead”
He did not hide his opinion of the Indians and his philosophy of ending them. He was in favor of annihilating them in every possible way and promoted the method of depriving them of their means of subsistence. He knew that they were fundamentally nomadic peoples and that they need hunting to be able to feed themselves properly. He went out of his way to starve them to death.
“Every buffalo less, there will be one Indian less”
When General Grant was elected President of the U.S, he gave and authorized Sheridan carte blanche to enforce a scorched earth policy. Sheridan had already performed this on Confederate lands, when the American Civil War was ending.
The results were catastrophic for the buffalo and for the American Indians who were left without means of subsistence and hunger and disease facilitated their progressive disappearance.
California and its genocide
In this US State, there are detailed studies on the extermination of indigenous people in California. During the Spanish domination, a multitude of missions were created that would later become populations such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, etc. An attempt was made to evangelize the natives and they were largely respected.
With the arrival of the Americans in California and becoming part of the U.S, the situation changed completely. In the period (1843-1876) there was an authentic genocide among the indigenous people by the new settlers supported by the authorities of the State of California. It is believed that the indigenous population went from 150 individuals to 30,000, a huge number because this meant the murder of 80% of the indigenous population. Sometimes it happened that once the men were murdered, women and children were sold as slaves.
The massacres followed one another and almost all followed the same plan of premeditated annihilation.
The Sacramento River Massacre (1846)
Before they officially became an American State (1850), the systematic killings began. Directed by John Fremont. 80 men stormed a Wintu village by surprise, killing about 1,000 indigenous people. Something that was not difficult for them, since the Wintu were peaceful and they carried long-range firearms, capable of firing almost up to 200 m.
The Bloody Island Massacre (1850)
Justifying their actions by the death of two settlers, more than 1,000 indigenous people were killed. A cavalry unit participated in the massacre, in which Jefferson Davis, future president of the Confederacy (slave owner) participated. Despite opposition from a group of white ranchers who considered these actions cruel and disproportionate, new parties of anti-indigenous people arrived and continued to search and kill.
The Davidson plan was also approved:
“With orders to proceed against the Clear Lake Indians and to exterminate the tribe if possible.”
An Infantry unit and an Artillery unit participated in this plan.
Days later in the Alta California Daily News, an army captain described the attack:
“They threw… a destructive fire indiscriminately on men, women, and children. “They fell,” said our informant, “like grass passing the sickle.” They met little or no resistance, and the butcher’s work was short-lived. The screams of the slaughtered victims faded, the roar of muskets … ceased; and the bloody corpses of these indigenous people were left lying dead on the floor of their native valley – none was forgiven either by sex or by age; the extermination order was terribly obeyed ”.
The army rejected this report and tried to shelve the matter. But a Pomo indigenous denied it, stating:
“They killed many women and many children around this island. An old woman (indigenous) told what she saw while she was hiding on a riverbank, under hanging reeds. She said that she saw two white men carrying a girl hanging. She was brought to the stream and thrown into the water… There she lay a woman shooting and baby in her arms. They stabbed the woman and the baby and threw them into the water. She said that all the children were stabbed to death, and many of the women were also stabbed to death. “
According to Major Edwin Allen Sherman said, “There were at least four hundred warriors killed and drowned in Clear Lake and an equal number of Indian women and children … Well in total, about 800 Indians in Clear Lake.”
“The attack of May 15, 1850 could be classified as one of the deadliest massacres of indigenous people in the history of the United States and its colonial background. It would exceed the slaughter of 260 to 300 Hunkpapas and Miniconjous at Wounded Knee in 1890, It would surpass the slaughter of 400 to 700 Pequots in Mystic, Connecticut, in 1637, and equal the slaughter of 600 to 800 Pueblo Indians in Acoma, New Mexico, in 1599 ”.
“Yes, Sherman’s estimate is correct,” declares Madley, author of “An American Genocide.”
It took 160 years for the facts to be accepted in the U.S. It has been recognized that a group of settlers and miners massacred the Wiyot Indians, the elderly, women and children were killed. The attack was carried out taking advantage of the fact that the men had gone hunting. The city of Eureka (California) returns the island to the Wiyot community.
Yontocket Massacre (1853)
The Tolowa indigenous people were reunited with the Yurok and various other tribes. They intended to go on a spiritual pilgrimage to pray in the sacred land of Yontocket, considered the center of their universe.
The whites, surrounded the village where the Tolowa were sleeping, and fired on their tents. When they tried to escape, they were gunned down. The attackers completely burned Yontocket. It was later announced that “almost no Indian was left alive.” The survivor stated:
“The water was simply red with blood, and corpses floated everywhere.”
Those responsible for the genocide
For 30 years, all kinds of murders and robberies were carried out against indigenous people, with the approval of the U.S. Government.
United States President James K. Polk
One of those directly responsible was a military Captain named Frémont, who came to California under the direct orders of President Polk to raise up the white settlers against Mexico. He carried out the Sacramento River Massacre (1846), when Mexico expelled him from the territory. This massacre would be the first important one and then, taking advantage of his power, many more would be carried out.
John Fremont pioneer of the State of California
This character became one of the founders of the State of California and had the power to carry out a dozen bills of law, which annulled Spanish laws and carried out the distribution of indigenous lands among white settlers.
“Spanish Laws clearly and absolutely assure, for sedentary indigenous peoples, the Property Rights of the lands they occupy.”
“This is more than this Government can allow the tribes of this State”
Laws against indigenous people:
An Indian accused of a crime was guilty until he proved his innocence.
Indigenous children could be kidnapped and forced to work without pay.
They could be bought from any imprisoned Indian.
Corporal punishment of indigenous people was legalized.
The U, S Government paid the military expenses for the ethnic cleansing that took place, in which military infantry and artillery units participated. Especially during Franklin Pierce’s tenure.
Governor Peter H. Burnett
He called a war of extermination of the natives
“It will continue between the races, until the indigenous race is extinguished”
Senator John B. Weller
“They will be exterminated before the advance of the white man … although humanity prohibits it, the interest of the white man demands their extinction.”
Curiously, while the massive expropriation laws were continued and the lands of the indigenous people passed into the power of white settlers. The press took it upon themselves to accuse the indigenous of a nuisance, and continually proclaimed racist slogans and slander, accusing them of thieves, to justify all kinds of abuses and killings.
“A continuous war will be fought over the robberies committed, until all are exterminated”
Shortly after, the California Star newspaper (1848) continued with the anti-indigenous campaign and wrote
“The natives are a charge and a pest for this country, and I would happily contemplate the departure of each one of those unfortunate creatures from among us”
The Red Bluff Independent newspaper (1850) published:
“It is becoming evident that it will be necessary to resort to the extermination of the red devils before the residents near the ranches are safe, or that it is possible to travel on the roads”
The Courant newspaper (1865) continued:
“It is a pity for the red devils to exterminate them, and a saving of many white lives … there is only one type of treaty that is truly effective – that of lead.”
Anglo-American White Supremacy
Based on the doctrine of “Manifest Destiny” and White Supremacy:
The idea that the “white” race was inherently superior to the rest, that they were subhuman, and that God had commanded that the destiny of the whites in America was to conquer and dominate everything from the Atlantic to the Pacific
The new settlers needed land and many of these lands belonged to the indigenous people by the Laws granted by Spain.
The indigenous people had a mentality of community use of their territory. For this reason, when some land fell back into the power of the indigenous, or Mexicans, they were separated into plots of land between white settlers, so that they could not be used communally. Faced with the encirclement of Anglo-Saxon settlers and continuous problems and threats, they soon abandoned them or sold them to other settlers.
In addition, the idea of a white Supremacy required an Anglo-Saxon, Protestant, English-speaking California. All the others were left over, Hispanic and indigenous.
Anglo-Saxon Genocide Studies
In a publication of the University of Yale (New Haven, Connecticut) the U.S is explained with all kinds of sources, the main cases of genocide. Compiled by Benjamin Madley (Yale University Press)
It is the first complete account of the Genocide supported by the leaders of the State of California, under the Government of the United States.
Read more: An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe
Social differences between Spain and the U.S
400 years before, Spain authorized miscegenation
Although it seems incredible at the moment, the degree of cultural advancement of Spain in this social and human rights field with respect to the Anglo-American world has been 400 years. And there are those who think that more time, due to the acts of discrimination and others, that sometimes occur in the U.S.
Things as basic as the right of anyone, regardless of race, to marry whoever they want regardless of color or culture, are recent in the United States of America.
First Hispanic mestizo marriage (1565)
Since the arrival of the Spanish in Mexico, they have already been produced. The example was given by Hernán Cortés who had a son with the indigenous Malinche (known and appreciated by all as Doña Marina). He also made all his captains have relationships with indigenous people.
Year 1565 in St. Augustine (Florida).
In the territories of the current states of North America, there are even historical documents. Segovian MIguel Rodríguez marries a black woman Luisa de Abrego. The North American historian Michael Francis has investigated among the archives that are conserved in San Agustín (the first European population populated from the year 1565). and his discoveries clearly go against the Spanish Black Legend.
Anglo-Saxon mestizo marriage (1967)
Just as the English did not create a single law to protect the natives, even less to promote miscegenation. On the contrary, they penalized mixed marriages. The Americans continued with the policy of punishing miscegenation.
Hispanic superiority is spectacular. Spain 400 years that the English or North Americans from the U.S drafted laws promoting miscegenation and defense of indigenous people
Surprisingly, it was not until 1967 that mestizo marriage was decriminalized in all of North America until 1967. The marriage of a Virginian with an African American earned him a sentence of more than 1 year in jail. They applied a law that was still in use in more than 16 U.S. states. Finally the Supreme invalidated the Law for the whole country.