Columbus and his decisive New World dates
The most important facts of the trip to the New World, of the life of Christopher Columbus and of his time in dates. Chronology of his life before and after America.
Christopher Columbus in the key dates of his life
Chronology of his Life before and after the Discovery. The enigma of his native origin
Monument to Colom in Barcelona
A reason to hide its origin. The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Aragon, including the Catalans, were officially prohibited from accessing Atlantic waters, which is why they spread throughout the Mediterranean, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and half of Italy.
+ Catalan Colom
Since 1380 the surname Colon or Collon existed in Galicia
Cruz de San Salvador do Poio in Pontevedra, Columbus’ birthplace according to the theory of his Galician origin. At its base is the corsair symbol
+ Galician Colon
Chronology of the Life of Christopher Columbus
The various theories about his origin locate his birthplace in various places.
Decisive dates in your life
Account in dates of the possible origins of him and of the most important his life. When and where he died or what were the trips of Christopher Columbus, is still interesting, due to the large number of doubts that exist about his biography, origin and his life.
Part of the various dates according to the Theory of the origin of it that is applied. The Galician Theory indicates his birth in Pontevedra much earlier than was considered.
Year 1432: Birth of Columbus (Galician Theory)
Date of birth of Pedro Álvarez de Sotomayor (Pedro Madruga) (Colón). Illegitimate son of Fernán Yáñez Señor de Sotomaior.
Year 1446: he Begins to Sail (Galician Theory)
He finished his studies in Pontevedra with Fray Esteban de Soutelo and left the Monastery.
Year 1451: his date of birth (Genoese Theory)
Son of Susana Fontanarosa and Dominico Colombo
The future queen Isabel de Castilla is born
Ferdinand II of Aragon is born. Later he would be King of Aragon and Castile upon marrying Isabel of Castile (Catholic Monarchs)
His brother Bartolomé Colón is born
Francisco Jiménez, known as Cardinal Cisneros, is born.
The war between Aragon and Genoa ends.
Christopher Columbus’s brother, Jaime Colón, is born.
Year 1469: Returns to Galicia, according to the Galician Theory
After sailing for 23 years through many seas, according to his son Fernando’s, he returns to Galicia. There he awaits the surprise of inheriting the Señorío de los Soutomaior, with lands and castles in different areas of Galicia.
The Lord of Soutomaior about to die without issue names his bastard brother Pedro Madruga (Columbus) as his successor in 1468.
Year 1474 (Galician Theory)
He takes part in the war of succession of Castile. He fights on Juana’s side against other Galician nobles such as the Fonseca and Pimentel.
Christopher Columbus participates in an expedition to the island of Chios.
The supporters of Queen Juana including Columbus (Lord of Sotomaior) are losing the war and Isabel is proclaimed Queen of Castile in Segovia.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa was born, the first European to see the Pacific Ocean and to build a stable population on the American Continent.
The shipwrecked Christopher Columbus arrives in Portugal. It is believed that after having participated in a naval combat between Genoese and French ships under the command of Admiral Coullon. Galician theory considers him a distant relative of his.
Francisco Pizarro, future conqueror, is born. He would lead the Spanish expedition that began the conquest of Peru.
Christopher Columbus expedition to the Madeiras Islands in search of sugar. This product was highly valued and fetched high prices. His mission was to buy more than 2000 arrobas of sugar and transport them to the peninsula.
The Catholic Monarchs Fernando and Isabel claim the Canary Islands for the Crown of Castile. The Castilian-Aragonese army begins the definitive conquest of the islands of La Palma, Tenerife and Gran Canaria.
Year 1479 (Galician Theory)
The War of the Succession of Castile ends and he replaces King Enrique IV, Isabel de Castilla. An amnesty is proclaimed.
The Lord of Soutomaior (Christopher Columbus) is dispossessed of his lands. Later in the year 1483 they passed in favor of his ex-wife, a Portuguese noblewoman and his son Álvaro. Before this he takes refuge in Portugal where he also has lands, the county of Caminha.
According to the Genoese Theory, Colón marries Felipa de Perestrollo.
Ferdinand the Catholic is named King of Aragon.
Map of Toscanelli, to be used by Christopher Columbus.
Start of the Granada War.
Juan II is named King of Portugal.
Columbus travels to Guinea and founds the post of San Jorge de la Mina.
Alfonso Fernández de Lugo founds Spanish enclaves in the Canary Islands and took over the Island of Gran Canaria for Castile.
He continues to be in Portugal and presents his project to the King, at that time John II.
Juan II of Portugal, behind the back of Christopher Columbus, sends an expedition to check if what he says is true and to search for islands in the Western Ocean. This expedition reaches the Sargasso Sea and, not finding land, he decides to return to Portugal.
Columbus, not receiving an answer from the King, travels to Castile with his son Diego, and resides for a few months at the home of the Duke of Medina-Sidonia.
In Portugal, the Board of two mathematicians does not see fit and rejects Christopher Columbus’s project.
Columbus leaves Portugal and reaches the convent of La Rábida (Huelva). There he meets Fray Juan Pérez who had been the Queen’s Confessor and was well known at Court. And Antonio de Marchena, famous cosmographer.
Birth of Hernán Cortés, future conqueror of Mexico.
Year 1486 (Galician Theory)
Pedro Madruga (Lord of Soutomaior) disappears in Portugal and Christopher Columbus appears in Castile.
The Catholic kings receive Pedro Álvarez de Sotomayor (Pedro Madruga) and dismiss him like Christopher Columbus.
Christopher Columbus meets with the Kings of Castile and Aragon, Isabel and Fernando. Meetings were held in Salamanca to study the Columbus project.
Isabel de Castilla assigns a small pension to Christopher Columbus. From this moment on he is considered to be in the service of the Spanish Crown.
The kings promote new meetings in Córdoba to study the Colón project.
The kings reject Columbus’s project while the war in Granada lasts.
Columbus travels to Lisbon to see the King of Portugal. He still does not agree to help his project.
He sends his brother Bartholomew to offer the project to the kingdoms of England and France.
He meets Beatriz Enríquez de Arana, his future wife.
The King of Portugal writes to him telling him to return again, to Portugal. In this letter he names him as Colón or Collón alternately.
His brother Bartholomew his failed in England and France in his efforts to offer the Columbus project.
Christopher Columbus returns to Castile and is received by his Queen Isabel.
Columbus follows the Royal Court until he reaches Seville.
A letter from the King of France, Charles VIII, encourages him to travel to Paris.
He travels to La Rábida (Huelva) to say goodbye to his son Diego and Fray Juan Pérez decides to write to Queen Isabel of Castilla.
Queen Isabel asks Columbus to go to Santa Fe and for this she sends him 20,000 maravedís. With this, negotiations with the Catholic Monarchs are resumed.
Voyages of the discoverer Christopher Columbus
Dates of voyages of discovery
The War of Granada ends, the Muslims are expelled from the Iberian Peninsula.
Christopher Columbus reaches an agreement with the Catholic Monarchs on his project to discover new lands, gets financing and the Capitulations of Santa Fe are written where he collects in writing the conditions of the project between Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs.
The negotiations for the Capitulations lasted 3 months. As representative of Columbus was Fray Juan Pérez and as representative of the Kings Juan Coloma. Columbus was uncompromising about the assurance of his future discoveries.
Expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
First Voyage of Christopher Columbus
From the Port of Palos de Moguer, Christopher Columbus sets sail for the island of La Gomera (Canary Islands), where he will stock up on what is necessary for the long journey. The expedition consists of 3 caravels, La Pinta, La Niña and the Captain Nao known as “La Gallega” that Columbus would baptize as the Santa María. The caravels were captained by the Pinzón brothers.
About 90 sailors and about 30 passengers make up the expedition.
It departs from the Port of Palos de la Frontera (Huelva) and sails to the Canary Islands.
First a problem with the Pinta rudder and they decided to fix it in the Canary Islands. They also take the opportunity to increase security and prepare to caulk the ship.
They continue sailing and arrive at the Sargasso Sea
They observe signs in the sea like grasses, marine animals. In the sky they see birds.
For the wind and the sea is calm. Fears appear among the crew of being able to return.
They change course when they think they see land Martín Alonso Pinzón. When checking that he does not return to take the previous course, towards the West.
He reaches the Island of Guanahaní in the Caribbean Sea. Located in the current Bahamas Islands and belonging to the Antilles. He named this first island San Salvador
(Galician Theory: San Salvador do Poio, was his birthplace in Galicia).
On October 15
From there he travels to other islands such as Santa María de la Concepción, currently Cayo Ron.
(Galician theory: Santa María was his patron saint, Basilica built by the Pontevedra mareantes association already in the 12th century)
Fernandina, now Long Island.
On October 19
The Island of Someto baptized it as Isabela.
He tours the Sand Islands.
He baptizes as Juana in honor of the future queen of Castile to Cuba, upon discovering a very large island with a lot of vegetation, which he thought was Cathay.
Arrives on the Island of Cuba
On November 22
The caravel Pinta, led by Martín Alonso for reasons that have not been clarified, continues its journey, despite the fact that the other two caravels have decided to anchor, arriving at Babeque.
He arrives on an island, takes possession for Spain, he calls it Hispaniola
On December 6
Thanks to the information from the indigenous people, she arrives in Haiti. The island reminds him of Castile and he baptizes it with Hispaniola.
On December 18
She decks the boats and celebrates a religious festival as a thank you.
(Galician theory: This day was and continues to be the feast of the Virgen de la O, Santa Maria in Pontevedra). Curiously, it is the only party that she celebrates.
During the Christmas Eve the collision with some rocks took place
On December 25
In the vicinity of Hispaniola the navigation accident takes place, during the night of Christmas Eve. It occurred in the place known today as the Bay of Cap Haitien. A strange error causes the sinking of the ship Santa María. She takes advantage of her wood to build the Christmas Fort.
On December 26
Taking advantage of the remains of the recently sunken ship Captain La Santa María, the construction of Fort Navidad begins, which would be the first European settlement in the New World.
Return to the Peninsula in the ships La Pinta, captained by Pinzón and La Niña, under the command of Christopher Columbus. The harshness of navigation under a storm causes the ships to separate and arrive in Spain at different times. The first to arrive is La Pinta that wanders to Galicia (Bayona) (Curiously, the castle was guarded by the Soutomaiors. La Niña arrived at the Azores and then to Lisbon (Columbus is received by his nephew, sent by the Portuguese Court)
Reception by the Catholic Monarchs in the city of Barcelona on March 15th.
Reception by the Catholic Monarchs in the city of Barcelona on March 15th.
2nd voyage of Christopher Columbus
On September 25
A great expedition of 17 ships and 1500 men departs for America
Part of the port of Cádiz, it is supplied on the island of Hierro (Canary Islands) and reaches the small Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. He travels to Boriquen (Puerto Rico) and from there he arrives at Fort Navidad, which he finds completely destroyed. The 50 men who remained in it have disappeared.
On November 22
He reaches Hispaniola, the place where Fort Navidad was built. Find the burned place with no survivors. Corpses of Spaniards tied to logs appear and are buried in the place.
Christopher Columbus continues to explore the Antilles Islands, and discovers the Island of Jamaica. From the new La Isabela base they return to Spain with 12 ships loaded with spices, gold, natives and exotic animals.
The conquest of the interior of the island of Hispaniola (Santo Domingo) is undertaken. The exploitation of the gold deposits begins.
The coasts of Jamaica and Cuba are explored.
Accusations against Colón. Father Boil and Pedro Margarit return to Spain, presenting their complaints to the Kings.
The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed between Spain and Portugal in which the newly discovered New World is divided between both countries.
Columbus sends a new shipment of enslaved natives to Spain. The Catholic Monarchs disavow the slavery of the natives of the islands. And they send Juan de Aguado to La Isabela as royal supervisor.
Columbus decides to return to Spain to face the accusations against him.
On June 11, Christopher Columbus arrived in Cádiz, accompanied by Juan de Aguado and more slaves, including the rebel chief Caonabo who died during the journey.
In October he is received by the Catholic Monarchs.
The 3rd expedition begins preparations. Given the difficulties in recruiting sailors, peasants and soldiers, criminals sentenced to death are used.
Third voyage of Christopher Columbus.
The 3rd expedition leaves from Seville, on May 5, setting sail 5 caravels and a ship. They are supplied in La Gomera (Canary Islands). A group goes directly to Hispaniola to bring food and provisions. This group is captured by Mayor Roldán who uses them to negotiate against Colón. Roldán and Colón reach a pact.
Uprising of Adrián de Múgica and Hernando Ladrón de Guevara against Colón and Roldan. Columbus and his brother Bartholomew repressed the revolt with great harshness.
Alonso de Ojeda, Juan de la Cosa and Américo Vespucio explore Venezuela.
The supervisor of the Reyes Francisco de Boadilla, upon checking the accusations against Colón and his brothers Bartolomé and Diego, imprisons them. Christopher Columbus arrives in Cádiz under arrest in November. In the audience with the kings he is set free.
Vicente Yánez Pinzón sails off the coast of Brazil.
The navigator Juan de la Cosa makes the first authentic representation of the American coastline.
New Governor of the Indies, Nicolás de Ovando with powers for 2 years.
Royal grant to discover new lands and found colonies in the new world in favor of Alonso de Ojeda.
Fourth and last voyage of Christopher Columbus.
New expedition of Christopher Columbus from Seville, reaching the island of Martinique. Tour Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. It borders the coasts of Veragua after passing through Panama.
Juan de la Cosa travels through Venezuela, Colombia and Panama.
Moctezuma II is appointed emperor of the Aztecs, who begins to monitor the movements on the coast of the strange large Spanish ships.
Royal Decree that expels non-converted Spanish Muslims.
Christopher Columbus founded the first Spanish colony on the continent, calling it Santa María de Belén. Overcoming great difficulties he managed to reach the Queen’s Garden Islands and Jamaica.
Nicolás de Ovando receives special powers from the Catholic Monarchs for the new government of the New World.
The first ordinances are created for the Casa de Contratación de Sevilla.
Christopher Columbus spends 1 year in Jamaica without receiving help from Santo Domingo. He finally manages to arrive and sets sail for Spain, disembarking on November 7 in Sanlúcar de Barrameda.
On November 29, Queen Isabel of Castile dies in Medina del Campo.
Hernán Cortés embarks for the New World.
King Ferdinand largely reduces the rights and privileges previously granted by the Spanish Crown to Columbus.
Alonso de Ojeda makes his third trip along the coast of Panama to the Isthmus of Panama.
Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, on May 20. Only a year and a half have passed since the end of his Fourth Voyage. Exhausted by the vicissitudes of the same and the treatment received by the new Viceroy Nicolás de Ovando.
He did not give her any help and he had to live in Jamaica for 1 year, with a rebellion among his men. And once he arrived in Santo Domingo, he did not allow him to enter the port. He also did not heed the warnings of Colón, of the danger of the imminent arrival of a new Hurricane in the area and put him in danger.
Columbus took refuge at the last minute on a nearby island. However, the hurricane caused the sinking of 20 ships that were returning to Spain with the previous Viceroy, who found his death in this shipwreck.
Doña Juana and Don Felipe el Hermoso are named Kings of Castile. King Ferdinand of Aragon marries Germana de Foix.
Always sure of your next discoveries
Some believe that Columbus already knew exactly what he could find in the New World
The Argonaut theory would have given her the keys to his journey. He explained where to find in many details, including objects and landforms. Some of these objects could only have come from Europe. The enormous resistance not to yield in the Capitulations before the Kings, already indicated that he was totally sure of what he was going to find.
An explorer and navigator, at that time, did not aspire to be named Viceroy of the new lands, nor Admiral of the Oceans.
The story of his life
The interest in his life and his travels means that his short or long Biography continues to be published.
Even short Biography for children, which allows them to know the adventures and exploits of him. His trips were a journey through a large part of the Caribbean Sea, a journey full of unknown dangers, storms with incredible unknown hurricanes, dead water where it was not possible to sail due to lack of wind, unknown indigenous people and strange appearance for a European.