New Spain Army organized and led by Bernardo de Gálvez
What were the Spanish victories in the current U.S?
Forgotten Spanish battles and victories in the U.S.
Thanks to them he achieved his independence but little has been said. especially in the U.S, Battles that they did not win, but that were fundamental for the Victory of the 13 colonies and their Independence.
+ Spain and Independence U.S
The enormous Spanish Empire of the time in America is forgotten. In the U.S. War of Independence, Spain wins Louisiana, Florida and the Mississippi River
But much of the Hispanic aid is not known enough, neither by North Americans nor by Hispanics even though it was decisive for the Independence of the 13 colonies.
Spain defeats England on Earth
The North American uprising did not have enough forces, no weapons, no supplies, no ships, etc.
On the map you can see the great extension of the territories under the sovereignty of Spain in North America, in the year 1800. The great extension of the Spanish Empire, with the control of most of the current U.S. Spain finished off the task, defeating and expelling the English from the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico. By occupying her military bases, he prevented the English from attacking on the western and southern flanks.
In a second phase she begins to control the eastern franc, by occupying the English bases in the Bahamas Islands. And when Bernardo de Gálvez, prepared the invasion of the last important stronghold in the franc East, the Island of Jamaica ended the war.
Victories on the ground
The defeats of England by the Spanish troops were very important. The help of Spain in this war has been forgotten.
The help of France has been magnified and the Hispanic one despised. From New Spain England was defeated in Louisiana, Florida and across the Mississippi River, the entire Gulf of Mexico
Continuous English defeats by Hispanics
Hispanic Victories in the U.S: History should recognize that Spain arrived and contributed more troops than France in battles that were decisive. Very important battles of the North American War of Independence occurred in the area controlled by New Spain
In Hispanic Territories the war was decided
England defeated in Louisiana and Florida
When speaking of the War of Independence of the 13 North American colonies, only the battles that took place in their territories are mentioned, but it was only part of a global war.
Nevertheless decisive battles for the victory in the war were won by Spain to the English, in the bordering territories.
The American patriots knew it and the American Fathers thanked it. They reserved a position of honor through a portrait of Bernardo de Gálvez according to the resolution of his first Congress. But soon his descendants ignored her. It took 250 years for them to fulfill it. Without the decisive participation of Spain, the story would have been different.
General Lee asks Spain for help
As early as 1776, Captain George Gibson and Lieutenant William Linn were sent to request supplies from Fort Pitt (Pittsburg) in Pennsylvania.
Spain in a covert way already in the year 1776 helped the patriots and supplied weapons. From Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez gave them all his support. Thanks to this they were able to control the interior of the country.
Disguised as hunters, the twenty Gibson soldiers manage to arrive from what is now Pittsburg, in its day Fort Pitt. They have traveled the Ohio and the Mississippi. They give the Governor of Louisiana a letter requesting help from the Spanish, they ask for medicines, blankets, muskets, gunpowder, etc.
Under the protection of the Spanish troops, Gálvez supplied Lieutenant William Lynn with 9,000 pounds of gunpowder, blankets, muskets, and medicines. They travel by barges in a first stage to Fort Arkansas where they spend the winter under the protection of Spain when the river is frozen. In a second stage through the Ohio he would reach his destination in March in Pittsburgh.
Captain Gibson had to be jailed in order to deceive the English. Shortly thereafter he was provided with a ship that took him to Philadelphia with 1,000 pounds of gunpowder, weapons, and other war supplies.
Roger Clark asks Gálvez for help
In the year 1778, he was sent 500 pounds of gunpowder and weapons
Bernardo de Gálvez gave him money, weapons and gunpowder that were already in short supply, so that he could keep his troops in good condition. Thanks to this he was able to arm himself and carry out some of his most important expeditions to control part of the Ohio Valley. He took the towns of Vincennes and Cahokia. he even seized Fort Kavkasia in a surprise attack.
Captain James Willing protected
He even endured patriots who created a multitude of problems for his assaults.
An unscrupulous patriot, whom Gálvez had to support despite not yet being at war with England. He protected James Willing who got to be named Captain of the militias. Being in the position of this position, he had the powers to seize English property, even normal settlers. Quite a legal criminal who abused it, and he seized everything he wanted, even murdering. Everything fell into his power, lands, ships, slaves etc.
Even with the pressure of Gálvez and Pollock on the American Congress, he was not removed from office. Gálvez, to remedy his misdeeds as much as possible, proceeded to distribute land to the English who had taken refuge in Luissiana. Many were fled from the dangerous men of Willing, after they had been robbed by them.
Still officially at peace with England he had to correct part of Willing’s excesses. Faced with English pressure he restored his lands in some areas according to an agreement with the English. He got Willing to guarantee that he would respect the properties of the British colonists. With this commitment he let her left Louisiana with a Spanish safe-conduct.
Gálvez supports North American leaders
General Henry Lee, Captain George Gibson, Patrick Henry, Captain George Morgan, Thomas Jefferson ..
Patrick Henry as Governor of Virginia requested the help of Spain as essential when it came to conserving the Ohio Valley, the Mississippi and reconquering the Floridas.
The ill-provisioned troops of the 13 colonies needed everything. That is why one of Gálvez’s missions was to get supplies across the Mississippi River. The needs were so basic that they even had to send them uniforms on some occasions and on other occasions large quantities of cloths that arrived from Valencia to be able to make them.
Important leaders of the rebellion and political personalities asked him for help of all kinds. That is why he corresponded with all of them. He even received letters from the Congress itself.
Spain declares war on England
In 1779, at the end of the border conflict with Portugal in the Rio Plata, Spain is ready.
After secretly helping the American patriots for almost 4 years, Spain declares war on England. You have already been freed from the border conflict with Portugal and you can dedicate yourself to it. Make a secret agreement with France in Aranjuez so that their armies collaborate against England. In this agreement they undertake not to lay down their arms against England until the 13 colonies are independent.
Spain expels the English from the Mississippi
Bernardo de Gálvez with his troops travels the Mississippi
An army is quickly organized in Louisiana made up of Spaniards, Hispanics, African Americans, New Orleans inhabitants of French origin, etc.
Galvez takes advantage of the great relationship with the citizens of New Orleans, with a population of French origin. He knew and spoke French, since he spent time in a military school in France.
He gathers all the personalities of New Orleans and gets them to cheer him on and give him their support in the coming war against England. The enthusiastic inhabitants join his new army as militias. Gálvez’s march manages to quickly take Manchack, Baton Rouge, Natchez in a first phase.
Capture of Fort Bute
Bernardo de Gálvez, governor of Louisiana, fearing that England will seize New Orleans for its great strategic value as an entrance to the Mississippi River, he decides to attack first. After the Declaration of War, he prepares an expedition by sea, which is destroyed by a hurricane. Later he prepares another expedition by land whose hard journey causes him to lose many men. Finally they arrive at the English base of Fort Bute, which surrenders when an entire army of almost 1000 men is before it.
Capture of Baton Rouge and Natchez
Siege with artillery
Arriving in Baton Rouge, Gálvez came across a protected city with a well-armed fortress that prevented a frontal attack. By distracting the English with an attack from a nearby forest, he was able to build a surprise defense near the city in which to station artillery. The English garrison found that some cannons appeared out of nowhere, bombarding them. After hours of fighting, he surrendered.
The Mississippi River was the main artery through which aid was supplied to the 13 colonies
The mouth of the Mississippi under control
The river was the main artery of aid to the 13 colonies: Fort Bute, Bouton Rouge, Thompson and Emite
English defeats at Fort Bute and Bouton Rouge ensured that the mouth of the Mississippi River came under Spanish control. In a short time more than 1000 English prisoners were in Spanish hands. On the other hand, Carlos Grand occupies the English positions in Thompson and Emite.
From that moment on, Spanish aid could reach the North American patriots through the Mississippi River, which runs along a long stretch parallel to the Atlantic Coast, and through the Ohio River that penetrated the territories of the colonies.
Spain’s control of the strategic Mississippi River and its tributaries allowed the shipment of weapons
The Mississippi River and the Ohio, supply route to the North Americans. From New Orleans, Spanish and American ships carried aid to the Americans across the river. A safe route with no English presence nearby.
Spain expels the English from Upper Mississippi
Saint Louis is fortified that resists an attack and Fort San José is captured. Spanish victory in St. Louis of Missouri and the English are rejected
Fort San Carlos is abandoned to group together and adequately fortify Sant Louis. A tower is erected where cannons are installed. This Missouri fort will resist an English attack supported by Sioux Indians.
Capture of Fort San Jose, Michigan
Take the east bank of the Mississippi
Gálvez sent an expedition to Michigan (Niles) and Fort San Josep was reconquered by the actions of Eugenio Parré and Baltasar de Villiers. The different campaigns that were made in the Ohio Valley by Rogers Clark, had the Spanish help that came from Louisiana, protected by this fort.
Gálvez continues on his way and wins in Mobile
With the conquest of Fort Charlotte (Mobile) in Alabama, he secures control of Mobile Bay (Mobila)
The fortress of Fort Charlotte defended the entrance to the bay. It was besieged by Spanish troops and surrendered after 20 days of siege. The fall of this fortress freed New Orleans from the possible danger of an invasion and left the road open to Panzacola (Pensacola in English). England’s defeat at the Battle of Pensacola caused them to lose not only the population but also all their nearby bases.
Victory of Spain at the Battle of Pensacola
Gálvez and the English surrender of Fort George in Pensacola (Florida)
With the capture of the city, the last major stronghold of England in the Gulf of Mexico disappears.
This battle is considered, as the attack, with the best military tactics of the American War of Independence.
English defeat at the Battle of Pensacola, a decisive victory. Land and sea offensive with an army of more than 8,500 men
Perhaps the best planned land and sea operation of the American War of Independence.
Pensacola was next to a bay whose sand bars served as protection. The Spanish settled on the island of Santa Rosa after a risky landing. The English ships were chased away.
The largest Spanish warship, the 75-gun San Ramón, ran aground on the sandbar at the entrance, miraculously saved at the last moment. After this happened, the Chief of the Spanish Fleet refused to enter the bay due to the risk it posed to his heavy ships.
However, Bernardo de Gálvez studied the depths of the bay and decided that it was possible to enter. He considered that the English had placed the cannons excessively far and decided to risk it.
After getting on his boat, the Galveston brig entered the bay challenging the Spanish captains to do the same (the motto I ONLY would remain forever on his shield).
Despite English cannon fire from the fort, the rest of the Spanish ships followed.
One by one they came across the bay, to the Spanish camp to the ovation of their troops who had contemplated the feat.
The performance of the Spanish Grenadiers in the final assault on Pensacola, taking possession of the city
Grenadiers attack Pensacola occupying the city held by the English
Battle of Pensacola (Panzacola)
England loses the Gulf of Mexico
The English support the site to their position for more than 2 months. But the Spanish await reinforcements and attack.
After receiving more reinforcements from Havana, they bombed Pensacola until the powder keg of one of the forts exploded. The city surrendered and 2,500 prisoners were taken.
Map of North America with the 13 colonies and nearby territories Jaillot Elwe
Limits in the year 1792, Spanish possessions, from New Mexico and with Louisiana along with the 13 colonies
English dumped from the Gulf of Mexico
Gálvez succeeds in making the British presence in the Gulf of Mexico disappear. The entire Gulf of Mexico Coast in Spanish power. The Spaniards led by Bernardo de Gálvez were defeating England in successive battles. The capture of all the English forts and bases caused England to totally lose the Gulf of Mexico. This prevented him from blocking aid to the rebels and bringing supplies to his own troops through the interior.
Supplies from Spain by the Mississippi River
Then they continued down the Ohio River, a safe route for supplies to the American patriots.
As Spain dominated the entire Gulf of Mexico Coast from Mexico to Florida, it prevented the English from sending reinforcements across the Mississippi River. Only Spanish and North American ships were able to navigate the area and carry supplies.
New Spain surrounds the 13 colonies
The Viceroyalty of New Spain is key due to its great extension and because it involves the 13 English colonies that rebelled against England. Spanish control of this immense border prevents the English from blocking the 13 colonies and leaving them without supplies or weapons.
Mexico and much of the USA
Although Bernardo de Gálvez was Governor of Louisiana, he later became Viceroy of New Spain. This viceroyalty was much more than the territories of Mexico. It has fallen into oblivion for a large part of the North Americans that the Viceroyalty of New Spain was very extensive, and it occupied a large part of the current territories of the United States of North America.
It encompassed the now states of Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, California, UTA, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and much of the states of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana.
Galvez helps the North American Generals
In continuous contact and sending help to George Washington and George Rogers Clark
As a Spanish representative and Governor of Louisiana, Gálvez was in correspondence with prominent personalities of the North American Independence with George Washington or he was kept informed of his operations through the merchant Oliver Pollock who so much facilitated the sending of aid or the Spanish envoy Redón.
One of his victories, the capture of Pensacola, was fundamental for Washington’s change of strategy, when it was verified that for the first time the English army of the South ceased to be isolated by the West (Mississippi) and South Florida, thanks to the Spanish control of the whole area. Upon being informed by Redon of the taking of Pensacola, Washington saw the great opportunity and moved his army to Yorktown.
The English could not receive supplies by land. Not by sea, since part of his fleet needed it at the site of Gibraltar in Spain and to defend their own coast against the Spanish-French project to invade England.
Bernardo de Gálvez also helped George Rogers Clark. The Spanish control of the Mississippi River allowed Spanish aid to reach the rebels, since the North American ships navigated freely through its waters.
The Spanish victories were of great help
The English lost a large amount of weapons and control of the area so they could not supply their troops by land at Yorktown. On the contrary, the Americans circulated freely and obtained refuge when they needed it. The Spanish attacks in the Gulf of Mexico and later on the Bahamas islands occupying the British bases, forced them to divide their troops, preventing them from adequately putting down the North American rebellion.
Thousands of soldiers left Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, etc., to attack the English and also thousands of the captured British were taken to Cuba as prisoners of war.
Little is said of the Defeats of England carried out by the Hispanic troops. At the beginning of the war, General Lee from Virginia asks for help. Two years later, Roger Clark asks for it again. Bernardo de Gálvez protects the patriots of the 13 colonies, even when some are shown to be undesirable. He compensates for his abuses, giving land to English settlers, dispossessed by some thugs.
When Spain declares war on England, the first thing he does is expel the English from Lower Mississippi, first capturing Fort Bute, then taking Baton Rouge and Natchez. It gets Spain to control the Mississippi Amounts of supplies are sent through the Mississippi Little by little it expels the English from Upper Mississippi There were battles in Saint Louis of Missouri and the temporary occupation and destruction of Fort Saint Joseph in Michigan The new English defeat at Fort Charlotte (Mobile). The Battle of Pensacola is possibly the greatest battle of the War of Independence, with the collaboration of the Spanish armies of land and sea.
The defeat of England at its largest base in the area had great consequences. England loses the Gulf of Mexico, the coast.
Spain controlled large areas The great victories of Gálvez in the Gulf made it possible to ensure the Supplies of Spain to the 13 colonies, they were guaranteed. Won from Texas for the great army of New Spain. Aid to the Americans was fundamental.
Until now in the history books of the U. S, the great Spanish Victories that allowed it to achieve its Independence from England were omitted.